Drowning prevention and open water safety

(CNN) — On Good Friday 2017, Wyatt Werneth got a call from his wife, who had gone grocery shopping with their daughter: The car’s broken down. Please rescue us.

Werneth hopped in his vehicle to assist, driving by Patrick Space Force Base near Cape Canaveral, Florida. From the A1A highway, Werneth said you can see the ocean.

What he saw next was a twist of fate that led to a much more urgent rescue.

“I could see someone waving in traffic as I was going by. … I pulled in to see what was going on; I had the immediate instinct that something was happening in the water,” Werneth recalled to CNN Travel.

“When I came over the berm, I did not realize what I was getting into. There were multiple people in the water.”

And they were in trouble. very serious trouble. Rip current kind of trouble.

The scene would send chills of dread down anyone’s spine — but at least Werneth was prepared. He is an experienced lifeguard instructor and had water rescue equipment with him.

But with at least five people struggling in a vicious Atlantic rip current, how would he save them all?

The statistics are grim

The droning numbers from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are shocking.

An estimated 3,960 fatal unintentional drownings happen every year in the United States (including boating incidents). That is an average of 11 droning deaths per day.

Crowds flock to the sea and sand of South Beach in Miami.  Florida is No.  4 in drowning deaths per 100,000 people in the United States.  It's important to understand how to enjoy open water safely.

Crowds flock to the sea and sand of South Beach in Miami. Florida is No. 4 in drowning deaths per 100,000 people in the United States. It’s important to understand how to enjoy open water safely.

lazyllama/Adobe Stock

From 2015 to 2019, the states with the most drowning deaths per 100,000 people were:

1. Alaska
2. Hawaii
3. Louisiana
4. Florida
5. Mississippi

World statistics are even more shocking. There are an estimated 236,000 annual droning deaths worldwide, according to the UN’s World Health Organization. That comes out to an average of 647 people per day.

And then there are the even more numerous nonfatal drownings. The CDC says people who survive a droning incident have a range of outcomes: “From no injuries to very serious injuries or permanent disability.”

The tragedy is many of these deaths and injuries are preventable, experts say. What can you do to enjoy the water — be it ocean, river, lake or swimming pool — safely and not join the ranks of drowning deaths? Turns out, a lot.

Who is most at risk?

Men jump into the waters of the Bosphorus at the Anatolian side, also known as the Asian side, of Istanbul.  Males around the world have a higher droning risk than that of females.

Men jump into the waters of the Bosphorus at the Anatolian side, also known as the Asian side, of Istanbul. Males around the world have a higher droning risk than that of females.

Moe Zoyari/Bloomberg/Getty Images

Knowing who is more likely to drown is critical. At-risk groups need the most attention. Some of them in the United States are:

• The youngest people: Children 1 to 4 have the highest droning rates, the CDC says, mostly in swimming pools.

• Minority groups: Fatal drowning rates for American Indian or Alaska Native people 29 and younger are two times higher than for White people. For Black people, the rate is 1.5 times higher than for White people.

Drowning prevention tips

Children get a swimming lesson at a YMCA in Memphis, Tennessee.  Research shows participation in formal swimming lessons can reduce the risk of droning.

Children get a swimming lesson at a YMCA in Memphis, Tennessee. Research shows participation in formal swimming lessons can reduce the risk of droning.

Karen Pulfer Focht/The Commercial Appeal/AP

However, “children who have had swimming lessons still need close and constant supervision when in or around water,” the agency writes. Don’t get distracted by TV, books or the phone when watching children in the water.

If you’re drinking alcoholic beverages, stay out of the water and don’t go boating. Impaired judgment and slow reactions can lead to tragedy.

People in boats and weaker swimmers, especially in open water, should wear life jackets.

And keep an eye on the weather. Exit if there’s a thunderstorm or heavy rains.

Know the water environments

People swim in the surf at Waimea Bay Beach Park on the North Shore of Oahu, Hawaii, under a warning flag.  Experts say do not underestimate the power of waves, even if there is no official warning.

People swim in the surf at Waimea Bay Beach Park on the North Shore of Oahu, Hawaii, under a warning flag. Experts say do not underestimate the power of waves, even if there is no official warning.

Caleb Jones/AP

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Understand the waters you’re about to enter. Different bodies of water carry different types of dangers.

OCEAN RIP CURRENTS

These currents flow away from shore. They often form at breaks in sandbars and close to piers and rock groins.

Look for signs of a rip current before entering, says the United States Lifesaving Association. That can be “a narrow gap of darker, seemingly calmer water between areas of breaking waves and whitewater,” a difference in water color or “a line of foam, seaweed or debris moving seaward.”

• Stay calm. Rip currents don’t pull you underwater but do sweep you farther from shore.

• Don’t swim against the current. Try to escape by “swimming out of the current in a direction following the shoreline,” the USLA says. You may be able to escape by floating or treading water and ride the current out.

• If you’re in trouble, yell and wave for help.

If you’re not trained, don’t try to rescue people yourself. Seek a lifeguard, call 911 or throw a flotation device their way. Direct the person to swim parallel to the shoreline to escape.

OTHER OCEAN TIPS

The National Weather Service warns swimmers to watch out for “shorebreak” waves. They crash directly onto the sand and can batter and disorient swimmers. “When in doubt, don’t go out,” said Wyatt Werneth, who is also the public service spokesperson for the American Lifeguard Association.
Swim Guide and Swim Ireland advise people to swim in the hour before or the hour after low tide or high tide when waters are generally calmer. (But conditions can vary beach to beach).

RIVERS

Tubing and other activities are popular in rivers. But swift currents and obstacles below the surface or debris can be hazardous.

Werneth said research the river before you enter.

Personal watercraft hug the shoreline at Blue Marsh Lake near Reading, Pennsylvania.  In that state, you need a Boating Safety Education Certificate in your possession to operate one.  The US Coast Guard says you should wear torso-protecting life jackets while riding one.  Also, don't jump wakes and don't drink alcohol before operating.

Personal watercraft hug the shoreline at Blue Marsh Lake near Reading, Pennsylvania. In that state, you need a Boating Safety Education Certificate in your possession to operate one. The US Coast Guard says you should wear torso-protecting life jackets while riding one. Also, don’t jump wakes and don’t drink alcohol before operating.

Ben Hasty/MediaNews Group/Reading Eagle/Getty Images

LAKES AND PONDS

The placid waters of lakes and ponds can lull waders and swimmers into a false sense of security. Sharp, sudden dropoffs and debris under the water can startle or entangle people, Werneth said, leading to panic and drowning. He said go in with a swim buddy.
Dive only in designated areas. The USLA says enter unknown waters feet first to avoid striking your head. Swimmers shouldn’t stray into areas where personal watercraft and boats are speeding by.

SWIMMING POOLS

The National Drowning Prevention Alliance has this advice for pool owners: “four-sided fencing with self-closing self-latching gates, door and window alarms, and safety covers can help make sure kids don’t get to the water unsupervised.”

And even if your children know how to swim, adults should still maintain a careful watch. Keep flotation devices on hand.

BOATING

The National Park Service’s “Operation Dry Water” reminds people that all vessels must carry personal flotation devices.

National lifeguard shortage

A lifeguard watches visitors swim at the Raging Waters Sacramento water park at Cal Expo in Sacramento, California.  There's a shortage of guards this year, so be extra vigilant.

A lifeguard watches visitors swim at the Raging Waters Sacramento water park at Cal Expo in Sacramento, California. There’s a shortage of guards this year, so be extra vigilant.

David Paul Morris/Bloomberg/Getty Images

Werneth said the group’s message has always been “swim in front of a lifeguard.” But he said the reality of the shortage is prompting a new one: “Learn to swim, America.”

“We want people to self-lifeguard. Assign someone in your family to be a water watcher. Have that person learn CPR.”

And if someone can’t swim and still wants to wade, “put a life jacket on them. That’s going to make a difference.”

Operation Rescue

Back in 2017 at that Florida beach, Werneth’s task was daunting. But he had a cool head, decades of experience — and fortunately, a second experienced helper on hand that he later learned was from the Air Force.

“He was single-handedly pulling people out before I even got there. … That Air Force guy was kind of coming back with one. I saw that he had one that was kind of going unconscious, and I immediately jumped in the water , swam out, grabbed the unconscious person and got him out.”

Werneth guesses that they were about 50 yards out, and he recalls they ended up pulling five male teens out of the water. They weren’t even in swimming attire, Werneth said, leading him to think it was a spur-of-the-moment decision to enter the ocean.

Would the group have died without the rescue, which left him exhausted?

“I assure you they all would have. … These people were going in to help each other, and it caused a chain reaction. Do not go into the water to assist anyone without a flotation device,” he said.

“It was perfect timing that I showed up and happened to be there to help those guys.” All because the family car had broken down. But not everyone can rely on luck.

In the end, you need “water confidence,” gained by experience and respect for the water.

“The fear is what generates the panic which generates the droning.”

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